bbc font size

I'm not sure.'. You may need to request the service identifier 2012. Sometimes this can be done without detracting from the integrity of the subtitling, but this is not always the case. You can make the font size of your posts larger or smaller by using the following tags: [size=2] [/font] – Text provided within these tags will be in the font size specified in the size tag. Full-Clock-value: hh:mm:ss followed by an optional fraction For example, the headings below are bolded blue size 3 . ‘ Online Subtitling Editorial Clip any region that extends beyond the root container region (the rectangle corresponding to an origin of 0% 0% with an extent 100% 100%) to the area that intersects with the root container region. Significant changes were made to the metadata If there are a lot of in-vision subtitles, all in the same language, you only need one label at the beginning - not every time the language is spoken. [EBU-TT 1.1] files should use ttp:timeBase="clock" and Speech can be inaudible for different reasons. intentions. seek advice on the appropriate subtitle timing for a programme. Oh. Indicates a BBC requirement that is additional to the base (general) specification. I'm glad to hear that. When two or more people are speaking, it is particularly important to keep in sync. not part of the action) and well known or identifiable in some way, the label begins "MUSIC:" followed by the name of the music (music titles should be fully researched). See also Line Breaks. An alternative strategy is to insert
elements as necessary; for example if tts:displayAlign="after" then every
element appended after a subtitle will raise that subtitle by the height of the line. The timecode of the first in-cue in the subtitle list. Dance Of The Sugar Plum Fairy", around 10% of broadcast viewers use subtitles regularly, increasing to 35% for some online content, documents previously published by Ofcom and the BBC, Introduction to the TTML document structure. The example below illustrates this: different fonts of the same size were used, with a line height set to "normal": Line height sets the distance between baselines of successive lines of text. For example: This is left justified. Line endings that break up a closely integrated phrase should be avoided where possible. 3.2h (3 hours and 12 minutes). Remember that what might make sense when it is heard might make little or no sense when it is read. [Timezone in ISO 8601 when ttp:timebase="clock" AND If you need to distinguish between an in-vision speaker and a voice-over speaker, use single quotes for the voice-over, but only when there is likely to be confusion without them (single quotes are not normally necessary for a narrator, for clue to the story-line. sport). Victor never heard in the Bible... #. This attribute is required (cardinality: 1..1). Every song subtitle starts with a white hash mark (#) and the final song subtitle has a hash mark at the start and the end: # These foolish For a Cockney speaker, for instance, it would be appropriate to include quite a few "caffs", "missus" and "ain'ts", but not to replace every single dropped "h" and "g" with an apostrophe. This approach creates the same Clicking on a heading in the main part of the document will make sure the heading is visible in the table of contents. Helvetica for iOS and Roboto for Android). Where

s are used for semantic information, it may be specified as metadata, using attributes such as ttm:role, xml:lang etc and/or a to control line length using a character count limit only: this is a crude method that does not take into account the width of individual letters and fonts. However, always consider the alternative of merging with another subtitle. If possible, the subtitler should wait for the scene change before displaying the subtitle. Будут вопросы, обращайтесь! here. If you have to let a subtitle hang over a shot change, do not remove it too soon after the cut. The BBC currently uses version 1.0 of EBU-TT, but intends to
s: this is a constraint in EBU-TT and EBU-TT-D rather than in TTML. ... Will the BBC be adding new features to the BBC News Android app? Dance Of The Sugar Plum Fairy" (only the subtitle text and the black background will be Find out specialist vocabulary, and specific editorial guidelines for the genre (e.g. approved in advance and the specification confirmed. Most subtitles are typed in white text on a black background to ensure optimum legibility. relative to the longest line and the group of lines is then aligned according to the word rate for live subtitles has been adjusted to 160-180wpm from 130-150wpm. Subtitles for new speakers must, as far as possible, come up as the new speaker starts to speak. using line breaks for positioning is discouraged for prepared subtitles (see Font size), this technique saves time when live subtitling. When no broadcast or online flag is indicated, the text applies to all subtitles. Further detail on how to specify cumulatives is described in You should not correct any incorrect grammar that forms an essential part of dialect, e.g. captions, any part of a speaker’s mouth or any other important activity. Use colours to distinguish speakers from each other (see In addition to the standard EBU-TT elements listed above, the BBC requires the below metadata elements within a This does not mean that every single creak and gurgle must be covered - only those which are crucial for the viewer's understanding of the events on screen, For instance: Similarly, make sure if you edit by using contractions that they are appropriate to the context and register. When present, the STL file(s) must be embedded in an EBU-TT document. Did you see Jane? For contemporary uses that emulate that era, see 1960s style. a change of speaker. If an item is already particularly concise, it may be impossible to edit it into subtitles at standard timings without losing a crucial element of The ideal line-break will be at a piece of punctuation like a full stop, comma or dash. Format lines. Sound-effect labels should be as brief as possible and should have the following structure: subject + active, finite verb: There is no obvious value for ttm:role for such labels. Maximum Number of Displayable Characters in any text row. the conversation, whenever one of the speakers is out of vision. If the speaker simply trails off without completing a sentence, put three dots at the end of his/her speech. Both versions are given here but only Begin and end times are not permitted on Additionally (through out of band mechanisms) provide downloadable font resources that map to the font family name that is used, to provide an expected behaviour. Then follow the quick EBU-TT-D how-to. If a speaker is interrupted by another speaker or event, put three dots at the end of the incomplete speech. Give viewers more time to read long figures (e.g. being marrying four years since and are having four childs, In such cases, line breaks should be inserted font for free from For help with requirements for specific subtitle documents contact the commissioning All letters are in a non-slanted way, as opposed to its previous block logos. Lake District since I was a boy. This section lists the required extended BBC metadata values If only the middle section of a word is bleeped, do not change colour mid-word: If the word is dubbed with a euphemistic replacement - e.g. If a subtitle needs to be moved while it is visible and inserting
elements is not possible then the

should be ended and a new

begun that references a differently positioned region. content for identifying in-vision speakers (it may be present in element. When raising new issues please summarise in a short line the issue in the Title field and include enough information in the Description field, as well as the selected text, to allow the team to identify the relevant part(s) of the document. If overlapping regions are active simultaneously draw them in region definition order, i.e. Subtitlers and authoring software are expected to manage See example in, Vertical positioning is controlled mainly by the, Horizontal positioning is controlled by the, MUSIC: "The Dance Of Since fonts have different character widths, the final pixel width of a line of subtitles cannot be accurately determined when authoring. a shot change in a bbctt:div of type="shotChange". In this case, there is a risk that the bottom line of the subtitle is read first. If the value is "noWrap", has stopped. Although This will affect the editing process as well as when to leave the screen clear. required extended BBC metadata values for BBC subtitle documents When the hesitation or interruption is to be shown within a single subtitle, follow these rules: To indicate a pause within a sentence, insert three dots at the point of pausing, then continue the sentence immediately after the dots, without leaving a space. Font Meme is a fonts & typography resource. While it is not possible (or advisable) to pre-determine the final subtitle size, adhering to the below guidelines will ensure that subtitles are legible at a typical distance from the device and that lines do not reflow or overflow for the Subtitling’. "4:3" ("16:9" allowed for online use only). The subtitle should not be on the screen after the speaker has disappeared. However, the BBC requires certain values in particular elements of the General Subtitle Information Block. Required. You can click here to refresh with a new set. However, you should also consider the image and the action on screen. Minor clarifications to presentation guidelines in response to comments received, for example: the wording about use of reaction shots to gain time. Gill Sans is a commercial font and you can purchase and download the font here. When several values A foreign speaker may make grammatical mistakes that do not render the sense incomprehensible but make the subtitle difficult to read in the given time. BBC 2015, ‘Specification of the EBU Subtitling data If this is not possible, the subtitle should Do not tidy up incoherent speech in drama when the incoherence is the desired effect. In practice, however, a processor may not know the actual physical current actively used format. It is permissible to slip out of sync when you have a sequence of subtitles for a single speaker, providing the subtitles are back in sync by the end of the sequence. You do not need to use dots every time you split a sentence across two or more subtitles. In this case you can use the Unicode code. Styling and layout are applicative, in other words styling and positional information are defined and identified, and content specifies the styles and positioning by referencing those identified See the list of supported characters for currency symbols you can use for broadcast and online. occasions (where no UID exists). those constraints are incorporated into these guidelines. If a speaker hesitates, do not edit out the "ums" and "ers" if they are important for characterisation or plot. ebutts:multiRowAlign modifies the behaviour of This can be achieved by referencing a region that is positioned centrally (horizontally), and a style with tts:textAlign="center" and ebutts:multiRowAlign either unspecified or set to "auto". The BBC has commissioned a new typeface, BBC Reith which will make text easier to read on screen and “will also save the BBC money”. in a subtitle at the beginning of the file. Select text and Raise an Subtitle fonts are determined by the platform, the delivery mechanism and the client as detailed below. Also, if you do edit the tense, you have to make it consistent throughout the rest of the text. Sound-effect labels are not stage directions. Text intended to guide developers in how to meet editorial guidelines is placed in sections like this within the Presentation section. The width of the background is calculated per line, rather than being the largest rectangle that can fit all the displayed lines in. All subtitle documents should be encoded in UTF-8, however the actual set of code points usable in an EBU-TT 1.0 document intended for broadcast presentation is currently restricted to the Teletext character Many subtitles therefore start on the first frame of the shot and end on the last frame. Technical details moved to the end, in the. Support at least eight regions that are active at the same time. The BBC needed a strong yet respectful typographic identity that was respectful of content, would appeal to a diverse audience (pre-schoolers to the elderly) and convey the traditional qualities of the BBC One image. broadcast Where colours cannot be used you can distinguish between speakers with placing. middle of otherwise unpunctuated lines. no automated line-breaking occurs and overflow is treated in accordance with the value of Given the size of our estate, implementation of the typeface will be incremental. ‘ITC Guidance on Standards for This is the XSD for the BBC metadata section of the EBU-TT document. If the subtitle zero is present, copy the content of subtitle zero from the STL. Do not indicate accent as a matter of course, but only where it is relevant for the viewer's understanding. online - applies only to subtitles for online use (not for broadcast). Subtitles and lines should be broken at logical points. If the word is non-standard but spellable put this in, too: If the word is dubbed with an unrecognisable sequence of noises, leave them out. sufficient project access levels. Do not subtitle over existing video captions where avoidable (in news, this is often unavoidable, in which case a speaker's name can be included in the subtitle if available). This figure assumes that the Teletext rendering area covers the entire video area. See. The editorial guidelines in the Presentation section are written in plain English, requiring only general familiarity with subtitles. Should you change the position of the subtitle to avoid obscuring important visual information or to indicate the speaker? Try to not squeeze From the mid-1970s to the mid-1980s, the BBC1 channel logo used several different fonts, but with each change the logo remained blue. matching shots), you will find it difficult to avoid slipping slightly out of sync. A tt:region sized to fit 3 lines at a recommended computed value of tts:lineHeight of 8% of the height of the root container region would have a minimum tts:extent height of 24%. For example, use ♫ for the character ♫, like this: ♫ Happy birthday to you. The timebase must be set to 'media'. of the second, so that it is clear that it is a continuation. these flags: EBU-TT-D or EBU-TT 1.0. Maintain a regular subtitle output with no long gaps (unless it is obvious from the picture that there is no commentary) even if this means subtitling the picture or providing background information rather than subtitling the commentary. Put a single quote-mark at the beginning of each new subtitle (or segment, in live), but do not close the single quotes at the end of each subtitle/segment - only close them when the person has finished speaking, as is the case with paragraphs For instance, if you have given 3:12 for one subtitle, you must not then give 4:12 to subsequent subtitles of similar length - unless there is a very good reason: e.g. is added If s/he then starts a new sentence, no continuation dots are necessary. Pixel length values are sometimes misunderstood in the context of video resolutions. a better television service. Tech3350 (version 1.1), 'EBU-TT-D Subtitling Distribution Format', In this example, we'll be replacing font sizes 4,5,6,7 with font size 3, which is the max size we need. Example: [size=1]This text is very small[/size] online € ♫ (replaces # to indicate music) ← → (arrows can replace < and >). It is likely to be less tiring for the viewer if shot changes and subtitle changes occur at the same time. things remind me of you #. This will affect your choice of vocabulary. In particular, the focus here is on EBU-TT-D creation for online only subtitle delivery; where there is commonality with EBU-TT Part 1 delivery for archive and downstream conversion to a distribution format this is described; however tts:textAlign so that, rather than each line generated by the p being aligned relative to the region, each line in the group can be left/centre/right aligned You may not be able directly to key in some of the other allowed characters. The following table lists standard EBU-TT elements and their required values. If you use this method you should test your subtitles in different browsers and operating systems before delivery. were seen crossing the border. This means that the timing of song lyric subtitles will not always follow the conventional timings EBU-TT-D with background colours applied to both and

: Set background colour to solid black (do not allow opacity). Where the speech for two or more speakers of different colours is combined in one subtitle, their speech runs on: i.e. See, Identifying in-vision speakers (legacy technique). Live subtitles are justified left (not centred). default to a multiplier of 1). BBCode formatted text (such as forum posts) to standard HTML. Bring it in and out with shot-changes if appropriate. people When I find out where he is, If there is time, place the speech on the line below the label, so that the label is as separate as possible from the speech. with a leading period, e.g. They may be short but they are often essential for expressing meaning. Contact the commissioning editor for guidance on file names for for non-scheduled content However, if the speaker is very easy to lip-read, slipping out of sync even by a second may spoil any dramatic effect and make the subtitles harder to follow. This document brings together documents previously published by Ofcom and the BBC and is intended to serve as the basis for all subtitle work across the BBC: prepared and live, online and broadcast, internal and supplied. information. "preRecorded" | "audioDescription" | "recordedLive" | However, where requirements exist that are specific for the authoring or processing of subtitle documents, they are listed separately under the relevant XML element. See. Avoid editing by changing the form of a verb. An overview of subtitles: read this introduction and the first few sections of Presentation, Timing, Identifying speakers and EBU-TT and EBU-TT-D Documents in detail. That new

This could result in only half of the subtitle being read. Cumulatives should only be used when there is a good reason to delay part of the subtitle (e.g. register: mother vs mum; deceased vs dead; intercourse vs sex; nationality: mom vs mum; trousers vs pants; era: wireless vs radio; hackney cab vs taxi. 1.2 seconds for a 4-word subtitle). subject to change. No changes need to be made to other styling attributes to accommodate processors potentially using a smaller font, however care needs to be taken when positioning subtitles in case a smaller font is used, as the following examples show: The font size is determined by tts:fontSize in combination with ttp:cellResolution. Note that the subtitle style used here is only an approximation. turn to joy Where these constraints decision that depends on other considerations, such as the speed of speech, text editing and shot synchronisation. You may have to edit more to ensure that the lines are short enough to look placed. can adversely impact clarity of presented text. Tech3380. grid of 40x24 cells that (for BBC use) must be preserved in EBU-TT files authored for linear broadcast (ttp:cellResolution="40 24"), even though EBU-TT does not require use of this specific grid. In most cases verbatim subtitles are preferred to edited subtitles (see this research by BBC R&D) so avoid breaking long sentences into two shorter sentences. Required. set. (BBC-SPG). the width of text on each line so that the text does not overflow. Avoid splitting sentences across subtitles. Time the label to coincide with the timing of the first one or two in-vision subtitles. Colours). For instance, if it takes 15 seconds to sing one line of a hymn, your subtitle should be on the screen for 15 seconds. Try not to leave a subtitle on screen when the next shot contains no speech and shows the character's Determines the position of a region, which is used for, Generate an error if the sum of the value for the x-coordinate of the region and the value for the width of the region (specified by tts:extent) is greater than 100%, Generate an error if the sum of the value for the y-coordinate of the region and the value for the height of the region (specified by tts:extent) is greater than 100%, This attribute can be specified on either region or tt elements. Sets a generic or a named font family. This first subtitle is typically known as 'subtitle zero' and is used for example to check that the correct subtitles have radio, loudspeakers etc., or a quotation from a person or book. it; standard prepared subtitles should be displayed in blocks. Do not bring in any dramatic subtitles too early. You know who you are! a shot change in a bbctt:div of type "shotChange", This is an empty element. Use caps also to indicate when words are shouted or screamed: However, avoid large chunks of text in caps as they can be hard to read. Generate a warning if the line padding causes the text to overflow. If there is time for verbatim speech, do not edit unnecessarily. For example, suppose the font-size of the body of the page is set to 1em, with the browser standard of 1em = 16px; if the font-size you want is 12px, then you should specify 0.75em (because 12/16 = 0.75). Making subtitle files for online-only content: if your software does not support EBU-TT-D you will need to create an XML file yourself. The x and y coordinates of the top left corner of a region with respect to the root container region, which is the active video for EBU-TT 1.0, and some implementation dependent rendering plane for EBU-TT-D, but generally have + eaten; will + have + been + doing), Scaling the root container to avoid overlap, Detecting and resolving screen area clashes by moving subtitles around. Must match the frame rate of the associated video. The following elements support the information that is present in the GSI block of the STL file. ttp:clockMode="utc" to indicate this information. a two-line subtitle of 6 seconds immediately followed by a two-line subtitle of 8 seconds, assuming equivalent scores for visual context and complexity of subject matter. Cumulatives are particularly useful in the following situations: Make sure there is sufficient time to read each segment of a cumulative, especially the final one. Open an example in Overleaf ebuttm:binaryDataElement. turned up. When cueing prepared texts for scripted parts of the programme: Subtitles should use upper and lower case as appropriate. Aim for continuity in subtitles by following through a train of thought where possible, rather than sampling the commentary at intervals. This string is appended with a hyphen and the value of the Revision Try to cue the texts of pre-recorded segments so that they closely match the spoken words in terms of start time. dramatic impact/song rhythm) and no other way of doing it - i.e. Note that these instructions are for creating a bare-bones file that does not include many of the features required by the BBC. For example: Air is displaced as water is poured into the bottle. Use alphanumeric and English punctuation characters: > < & @ # % + * = / £ $ ¢ Â¥ © ® ¼ ½ ¾ ¾ ™, Additional characters are supported but not normally used (see ebuttm:documentIdentifier,,,,,, Annex unless the value of a GSI field is the same across all STL documents. vast majority of users. for speech subtitles, and the subtitles may sometimes be considerably faster. Thus, segmentation at clause boundaries where he is,    ebutts:linePadding. If there are shot changes within the sequence, should the subtitles be synchronised with those? In obeying this convention it is most important to avoid obscuring ‘on-screen’ have an origin x coordinate of 14.375%) to allow for it to be displayed in its entirety even if a centre cut out is used to display the central 4:3 area of a 16:9 root container region. Consult the rest EBU-TT 1.0 In STL binary files, characters are encoded according to the table in Appendix 1. the Cockney "you was". If a piece of speech is impossible to make out, you will have to put up a label saying why: Avoid subjective labels such as "UNINTELLIGIBLE" or "INCOMPREHENSIBLE" or "HE BABBLES INCOHERENTLY". It is not necessary to simplify or translate for deaf or hard-of-hearing viewers. These values must be used without the quotes. The previous major version of this document remains available at The line breaks are resized with the rest of the text. If there is a pause between two pieces of speech, you may leave a gap between the subtitles - but this must be a minimum of one second, preferably a second and a half. If available, begin with a transcript file so you don't have to type in the text. displayed). Definition for BBC EBU-TT metadata. or which may be needed to convey flavour or atmosphere, or enable them to progress in gameplay, as well as those which are not obvious from the action. Several techniques can be used to assist the viewer in identifying speakers. The subtitle file formats used by the BBC allow non-presentation metadata that can be used to include information about the speaker of a subtitle. Above that speed, some editing would be expected. This section lists the In such cases, prioritise the important information over speaker identification, using horizontal positioning W3C Timed Text Working Group. Conditions. Live subtitles should appear word by word, from left to right, to allow maximum reading time. We currently broadcast teletext subtitles on our digital satellite platforms: by connecting a television to a set top box using for example a SCART connector it is still possible to Do not simultaneously caption different speakers if they are not speaking at the same time. the text following the arrow and the text in any lines below it are aligned. you don't start a new line for each new speaker. The below table lists the required document metadata values for BBC subtitle documents based on EBU-TT Part 1 v1, which is the current actively used format. Ideally, the tool should allow you to configure all of the features that determine line length (line padding, region definition, cell resolution, The he + is; they + will come; it + comes), parts of a complex verb (e.g. >. Spell out any number that begins a sentence: If there is more than one number in a sentence or list, it may be more appropriate to display them as numerals instead of words: On her 21st birthday party, 54 guests Re-use When there is a lot happening in the picture, e.g. This section provides a step-by-step guide for making an EBU-TT-D file using a template for online distribution only. take steps to avoid the subtitles being obscured by the overlays. This list may be evaluated on a per glyph basis to deal with the case where most glyphs are present in a font but later fonts include specific required glyphs omitted from earlier fonts, for example. Create a paragraph with manual line breaks for each subtitle and add timings for each paragraph. Scrolling subtitles, while usually appearing at the bottom of the screen, should be raised as appropriate in order to avoid any vital action, visual information, name labels, etc. A 'subtitle zero' is not intended to be broadcast, and this is achieved by setting the in-cue and out-cue times for this subtitle earlier than the first timecode value that occurs in the corresponding Calculate percentage values relative to the parent element's font size, if specified, or the cell size otherwise. Including this information is useful for searching, identifying speakers and other purposes. Disable automatic line wrapping so that the editor creates line break manually. frigging - put this in. 2013, Ofcom. Ultimately the subtitler may have to decide whether to make a correction or omit some speech in order to catch up. Slower timings should be used to keep in sync with slow speech. Try to allow extra reading time for your subtitles in the following circumstances: Try to give more generous timings whenever you consider that viewers might find a word or phrase extremely hard to read without more time. A logical container of subtitle text. She is inspired by humanes and Scotch Roman 2 . instead. ensure that the number of characters within a region does not exceed 37. Only the attributes inUnit or outUnit are specified]. If the STL file is embedded using ebuttm:binaryData, do not use this element. For example, if there is a loud bang at the end of, say, a two-second shot, do not anticipate it by starting the label at the beginning of the shot. Pausing the presentation while the overlays are visible. All content must have a computed value for this style that is the equivalent to half a character on each side (see Document Requirements below). Left arrows go immediately before the speech, followed by one space; right When I find out In general, subtitles for children should follow the speed of speech. based on EBU-TT Part 1 v1.1, which is the current actively used bottle displaces the air. Sometimes speakers can be clearly lip-read - particularly in close-ups. the original. Draw the background area behind each generated line area in the specified colour. format. It is recommended that you also familiarise yourself with Timed Text Markup Language and SMPTE timecodes. However, there may be occasions when matching the speed of speech will lead to subtitle rate that is not appropriate for the age group. As you would expect in a rebranding project, the new typeface was also intended to bring a harmonious freshness to the identity. When illustrating bad or unrecommended practice, the example has a strike-though, like this: counter-example. You In particular, the final size should never be larger than the authored size so that the subtitler can ensure that important parts of the of the video are not obscured. For example, in an STL file a subtitle with a TCO of Represents a logical paragraph. If a speaker ebuttm:documentTargetActiveFormatDescriptor, [one of the AFD codes specified in SMPTE ST 2016-1:2009 Table 1], [Bar Data from SMPTE ST 2016-1:2009 Table 3. by Tchaikovsky, (The Swedish National Anthem does not have quotation marks around it as it is not the official title of the music.). For example, consecutive subtitles may reflect better the pace of speech. For the file name, see EBU-TT-D file. me Arial) so the rendered line will likely fit within the authored Although EBU-TT allows pixel length units, the BBC requires that only percent or cell units are used. The below table lists the required document metadata values for BBC subtitle documents based on EBU-TT Part 1 v1.1, which is not yet in active use. Additionally, different browsers render different line heights for tts:fontSize="1c 1c" or This illustration shows how the document above is interpreted The BBC is not the only media organisation to design its own typeface. Turn to joy it will not always be appropriate to edit "I've got a cat" to "I've a cat"; and "I used to go there" cannot necessarily be edited to "I'd go there.". for BBC subtitle documents based on EBU-TT Part 1 v1, which is the Note, however, that the size of line padding is expressed in cell units, requiring additional calculation. timings. on + the table; in + a way; about + his life), conjunction and following phrase/clause (e.g. However where BBC-specific constraints exist they are described, in relation to the subtitle guidelines that they support. Increase size of subtitles in BBC iPlayer. Once a speaker has a colour, s/he should keep that colour. However, this is rare and should be used sparingly and only when there is no other way to emphasise the word. He didn’t tell immediately following the war. will you be finished? Regional styles must also be considered: e.g. tts:fontSize and BBC requirement: The font size shall be explicitly set, without relying on the default initial value. How do I change the font size on a story? work today, are you(?). This chart is a high-level view of current subtitle workflows: EBU-TT-D Application Samples provided by Institut für Few other words should be used. Should you use cumulative subtitles to convey the rhythm of speech (for example, if rapping)? In EBU-TT-D, the begin time of the subtitle is inclusive, but the end time is A subtitle (or an explanatory label) should always be on the screen if someone's lips are moving. Format timings. Note that the above standards support a larger set of characters than is allowed by the BBC. the Euro symbol €. Value must match the timecode of the start of the programme content. It is also simpler to transform EBU-TT Part 1 into EBU-TT-D if pixel units are not used, since no calculations need to be made relating pixel values to the tts:extent attribute of the tt element. See. Do not edit out words that can be clearly lip-read. In EBU-TT-based implementations, line length is determined by the following attributes: Because line breaks require considering all of the above, they are better inserted manually. If you don't have access to an authoring tool, you can use a simple text editor, although this method is slow and error-prone. You can change the text size on article pages by using the menu at the right of the red header bar. At this time, BBC logos were mechanical models filmed by black-and-white cameras. This contributes to a known issue where a gap appears between lines of text. also user-defined preferences. In quizzes - to separate questions and answers, In songs - e.g. content (but may be present in files created before it was If the unfinished sentence is a question or exclamation, put three dots (not two) before the question mark or exclamation mark. When it is necessary to indicate accent, bear in mind that, although the subtitler's aim should always be to reproduce the soundtrack as faithfully as possible, a phonetic representation of a speaker's foreign or regional accent or dialect Produce complete sentences even for short comments because this makes the result look less staccato and hurried. There will be times where the focus of the content will be on the lyrics of the song rather than on its rhythm - for example, a humorous song like Ernie by Benny Hill. This is a legacy technique that is no longer used in new However, do not underestimate how useful the occasional indication of stress can be for conveying meaning: I know that, but WHEN BBC to the EBU namespace. when a word or phrase can be read very clearly even by non-lip-readers, and if it would look ridiculous to take out or change the If the language spoken is difficult to identify, you can use a label saying TRANSLATION:, but only if it is not important to know which language is being spoken. If the information contained within the graphics is off-topic from what is being spoken, then the information should not be replicated in the subtitle. Every

is required by EBU-TT and EBU-TT-D to have an xml:id attribute. For linear playout, all characters for presentation must be in the set in Appendix 1. EBU-TT-D Annex C in The element carries the timed content that is to be presented, in a

, very heavily, you can use green as a "floater": that is, it can be used for more than one minor character, again providing they never appear together. 3264-E. 1991, 'EBU-TT Part 1 Subtitling Format Definition', When the hesitation or interruption occurs in the middle of a sentence that is split across two subtitles, do the following: Where there is no time-lapse between the two subtitles, put three dots at the end of the first subtitle but no dots in the second one. Required for linear broadcast legacy systems. tts:textAlign attribute value, whether that value is explicitly or implicitly specified. leaving? You online media player) support the display of subtitles under the image. Most subtitle authoring In combination with other attributes, controls, The active lines within the region are aligned in the block progression direction to the before edge of the region (for, In an EBU-TT-D or other TTML document (e.g. In the following tables, prefixes are used as shortcuts for the following namespaces: The BBC metadata scheme used. It includes elements for audio description and signs-language documents that can be omitted for subtitle files. If the STL file is embedded, use the revisionDate attribute of Hello, Mr... Oh, Added links from the technical implementation details to the presentation requirements they support. authoring to Teletext constraints. Aim to give more time when there are several speakers in one subtitle.
s may be placed in regions, which apply to the div and all its descendants. Use colour Specific actual values are indicated with double quotes, like this: "2". online The file must conform to EBU-TT-D standard. MUSIC: "The Dance Of We intend to release small updates often. Should you edit out some words to allow more time? Assistance with these guidelines and specific technical questions can be emailed to Impaired viewers make use of visual cues from the faces of television speakers. Where there is a time-lapse between the two subtitles, put three There’s no wisdom to destroy, # Turn to wisdom, He didn’t tell me you would be here. If you had the word "color" or "size" in your text the converter would convert it to ][color or ][size. 02:30:03, 01:00:10.25, Timecount-value: value followed by an optional fraction and a In EBU-TT-D only, defines whether automatic line wrapping applies within an element. To minimise the risk of unwanted line wrapping, use a wide font such as Verdana or Tiresias when authoring the subtitles. See ttp:cellResolution. If the author intents to avoid truncated content the tts:overflow attribute should always be specified Each part will appear on screen at a different time, in sync with its speaker, but all parts will have an identical out-cue. Along with reading distance, the physical height of the video when displayed on the device's screen is the most direct determinant of font size as a proportion of video height. To indicate whispered speech, a label is most effective. word. sound-effect label should be used: Song lyrics are almost always subtitled - whether they are part of the action or not. White (CONT’D) Timings must be in the format HH:MM:SS followed by a fraction (e.g. EBU-TT 1.0 documents should set ttm:role="music" on the relevant p or span element to indicate that the contents represent music. Set overflow to "visible" so that subtitles are visible even if they overflow. In the absence of other information, a default size of 0.5° subtended at the eye may be used to derive the default line height and calculate the multiplier, however this may be too small for some devices. Permitted only when ttp:timeBase="clock" AND ttp:clockMode="local" OR when ebuttm:documentMaximumNumberOfDisplayableCharacterInAnyRow. If a speaker speaks very slowly, then the subtitles will have to be slow, too - even if this means breaking the timing conventions. The BBC Writersroom offers ScriptSmart, for screenplays, but there is no online support. Similarly, if you want a font size of 10px, then specify 0.625em (10/16 = 0.625); for 22px, specify 1.375em (22/16). ttm:role, xml:lang etc and/or a ebuttm:documentIdentifier below. words on the screen; this would be an unacceptably crude approach. Roboto in Android). For BBC subtitles, set the font size to be approximately 1/15th (6.667%) of the height of the root container, for example by setting. The specifications 'Hello, Mr Meldrew. Guidelines for both platforms are summarised This is not only condescending, it is also frustrating for lip-readers. Problems occur with justification when a short sentence or phrase is followed by a longer one. tts:textAlign. ComboBox^ ComboBox1 = (ComboBox^) sender; // … If two or more white speakers appear in the same scene, you have to use one of a number of devices to indicate who says what - see Identifying Speakers. Release 1. 10/27/06 - Bug Fix - Image in Anchor Tag More time should be given when there are visuals that are important for following the plot, or when there is particularly difficult language. broadcast. end attributes. online Prepared subtitles for online exclusives must be relative to a programme begin time of 00:00:00.000 . In formal songs, however, e.g. The last song subtitle should end with a full stop, unless the song continues in the background. font size. and + those books; but + I went there), pronoun and verb (e.g. This style information is added to or overwrites style information from the currently active context. HTML and CSS sadly do not work on Ovipets. from their Random segmentation must certainly be avoided: On two minor Difficult and complex words in an unfamiliar context should remain on screen for as long as possible. To find out more about the bbcode tags used on this page, please go to the bbcode tags reference page. Live subtitles should be placed in an appropriately sized,, 'What do you think about it? Try to make sure that pieces of speech placed right and left are "joined at the hip" if possible, so that the eye does not have to leap from one side of the screen to the other. The Gill Sans font identified above is not available for free, please follow the link above and purchase a font license to download and use the font. 10/9/06 - Bug Fix - Color and Size. expected to match the displayed video. In order of priority: In CSS, EBU-TT and TTML this is named colour ‘lime’. Amongst many smaller tweaks, in this version the following changes are notable: Thank you to everyone who has helped to review this version. They describe sounds, not actions: A sound effect should be typed in white caps. "MUSIC" is in caps (to indicate When are you font face=Book Antiquafont size=6biИтак, Друзья! Meldrew speaking. v1.0 specifications are stable. someone we can't see or hear is responding. For example, you would The font size shall be explicitly set, without relying on the default initial value. The first of its logo is known as the coat of arms of the BBC then the first version of its famous blocks logo was introduced in 1958. Therefore subtitle appearance should coincide with speech onset. Do not take the easy way out by simply removing an entire sentence. you'll be the first to know. Sets inter-baseline separation between line areas.

and For example, if someone sneezes on a very short shot, it is more effective See also Conformance with IMSC 1 Text Profile. These may be similarly hard to edit. Always 1 when there is one STL file in the sequence. Song lyric subtitles should be kept closely in sync with the soundtrack. exclusive. The cell height ('c' unit) is used as the basis for calculating font size and Readers who do not have access to the project should email In EBU-TT-D only, adds padding on the start and end edges of each rendered line. See a problem? Unlike some converters, this will generate proper paragraph tags (instead of just using a lot of line breaks), and it utilizes CSS declarations for font sizes, color, etc. height and may have to rely on other data, for example pixel size and resolution (which may not be reliable indicators of physical size). Use mixed upper and lower case. Familiarise yourself with Prepared segments that have been subtitled and their place in the running order, but be prepared for the order to change. Where snippets of a song are interspersed with any kind of speech, and it would be confusing to subtitle both the lyrics and the speech, it is better to put up a music label and to leave the lyrics unsubtitled. Avoid using the same colour for more than one speaker - it can cause a lot of confusion for the viewer. 'SansSerif'). If the BBC has decided to edit any strong language, then your subtitles must reflect this in the following ways. improve readability. Instead, this document provides some guidelines and practical advice. had taken The Subtitle Guidelines describe best practice for authoring subtitles and provide instructions for making subtitle files for the BBC. Timings must be relative to a programme begin time of 00:00:00.000. The examples below illustrate devices and their recommended multipliers. at linguistically coherent points, taking eye-movement into careful consideration. However be aware that too many on-air corrections, or corrections that are not sufficiently prompt, can actually make the subtitles harder for a viewer to follow. It is the world’s oldest national broadcasting organisation. remain authoritative and they should be consulted alongside this document: Because closed subtitles are processed from file, it is possible for a presentation processor (e.g. edit the lyrics to give viewers more time to read them. attributes tts:unicodeBidi, No! In this case, you should put two dots immediately before the second sentence. Line 18 is used if three subtitle lines are required). What could you do This is not a complete file: multiple instances of elements have been removed and long values shortened. speaks very fast, you have to edit as much as is necessary in order to meet the timing requirements (see timing). Their implementation will depend on the content, the genre and on the Left, centre and right justification can be specified using tts:textAlign; additional alignment options are available using ebutts:multiRowAlign. Required if also targeting broadcast applications. Avoid editing out names when they are used to address people. metadata element. Avoid editing out catchwords if a phrase would become unrecognisable if edited. Made table of contents expandable, set to include top level details only on load. This is valid: Note, however, that curly quotes are not included in the list of allowed characters (some word processors transform straight quotes to curly ones automatically). Future versions will build on these guidelines or describe changes, or address issues Do not Where possible, each individual word that forms part of a cumulative subtitle should be included in the subtitle document exactly once, with appropriate timing specified [Empty element. gaps in if the time can be used for text. Yes. Sometimes this will be appropriate, but normally you should aim to edit out a bit of every sentence. Ideal formatting should therefore compromise between linguistic and geometric considerations but with priority given to linguistic considerations. There is an alternative approach in which multiple p elements are each timed to follow on from each other, with the first words being a repeat of the words in the previous p and additional words appended. at around 8 o'clock in the evening. If the subtitles are intended for broadcast, a limited set of characters must be used. EBU-TT and EBU-TT-D are subsets of TTML DPP delivery specifications. in a book. Having edited one subtitle, bear your edit in mind when creating the next subtitle. tt:div and tt:p elements may reference a region. This font height is the largest size needed for presentation and is an authoring requirement. Required for a live recording if intended for broadcast. Support Unicode characters and the Unicode bidirectional algorithm (, Should if only supporting left to right scripts, Calculate text alignment correctly based on both. make his big, ugly head. However, when time is short, place brackets around the whispered speech: If the whispered speech continues over more than one subtitle, brackets can start to look very messy, so a label in the first subtitle is preferable. Use colour to indicate This is the preferred method for identifying speakers. Prepared subtitles are normally centre-aligned within a subtitle region that is horizontally centred relative to the video. For displaying the day of the month, use the appropriate numeral followed by lowercase "th", "st" or "nd": Use the numerals plus the £ sign for all monetary amounts except where the amount is less than £1.00: For amounts less than £1.00 the word "pence" should be used after the numeral: If the word "pound" is used in sentence without referring to a specific amount, then the word must be used, not the symbol. Hello. Certain special programme types carry a lot of information in the lower part of the screen (e.g. configurable sizes, a recommended range is shown. tts:overflow attribute of the corresponding region. If scaling down the font size, also reduce the line padding. reaction, as this distracts from the reaction and spoils the punchline. Note that dashes only work as a clear indication of speakers when each speaker is in a separate consecutive shot. A strategy should be developed where words are omitted rather than changed to reduce the length of sentences. Queries and comments may be raised at any time on the subtitle guidelines github project by those with Generally it is better to use system font for readability (e.g. to leave the "Atchoo!" In that case, and if it is necessary for the viewer's understanding of the context of the content, use a label to make the accent clear: AMERICAN ACCENT: Subtitles authored The table of contents by default just shows the top level headings - headings with a triangle next to them can be expanded by clicking the triangle. Confusion is most likely to arise when the in-vision speaker and the voice-over speaker are the same person. Your aim is to minimise lag between speech and the appearance of the subtitle. occasions Examples indicate the appearance of a subtitle. new sentence to coincide with the shot change. Also take into account the number of words, line breaks etc. This value is used to preserve Teletext single line height, where the assumption is that a Teletext font is readable with a line height equal to 100% of the font size, for both single and double height lines i.e. This attribute acts as a ‘modifier’ to the action defined by the ebuttm:documentMaximumNumberOf DisplayableCharacterInAnyRow. Note that platforms may use different reference fonts when resolving the generic font family name specified in the subtitle file. shouting). In such cases, The behaviour of this attribute in combination with tts:textAlign is as defined in Annex C in. The client determines the font using information from within the subtitle data (e.g. When two or more people are speaking simultaneously, do the following, regardless of their colours: TOGETHER: Presentation processors usually use a narrower font (e.g. installed that contains glyphs for all the code points used. This attribute is required (cardinality: 1..1). Manual line breaks within

and elements are specified using
. if they have left the room). BBC Arabic font family | The text colour must be explicitly set to a value that is one of the values listed below (see Document Requirements). If no line padding exists and there is sufficient space available, add 0.5c of padding on the sides of each line. where he is, Random tip of the day. 'TTML Profiles for Internet Media Subtitles and Captions 1.0 (IMSC1)', The number of characters that generate this width is determined by the font used, the given font size (see, The subtitle encoder creates bitmap images for each subtitle using the Tiresias Screenfont font, The set top box or television determines the font - this is most commonly used on the Sky platform. elements (v1.1). The same rules of synchronisation should apply with off-camera speakers and even with off-screen narrators, since viewers with a certain amount of residual hearing make use of auditory cues to direct their attention to the subtitle area. Can you think of anything you could do with all the heat produced in the incinerator? The way in which subtitlers convey animal noises depends on the content style. structure between the versions, with some elements moved from the When there are differences between subtitles intended for either platform, this is indicated with one of these flags: R&D White Paper 287 (PDF): A Survey of UK Television Viewing Yes! Depending on the speed of speech, there are exceptions to this general recommendation (see live EBU-TT is the BBC's strategic file format for capturing subtitles and associated metadata. recycled by following the aluminium. Almost always 1 except for very long programmes where the subtitles may be split into multiple files (one per 'disk'). Added a section describing the details of EBU-TT and EBU-TT-D documents with a downloadable example document and further links to examples provided by IRT. a set-top box or a browser) to override the instructions in the subtitles file. If the text overflows its region, attempt to display the overflow (even if ugly) so that viewers who depend on subtitles don't miss important information. In some cases vertical displacement is not sufficient to avoid obscuring important information, for example when placing the captions above a graphic would cover a face. For instance, "LIONS ROAR" would become something like: In general, the numeral form should be used. Depending on device size, viewing distance, screen resolution etc., a processor (such as a player) may choose to reduce (but not to increase) the authored font size so that the final presentation font size is smaller than the authored 1999. Note that if tts:wrapOption is set to In the future, as legacy systems are phased out, the constrained requirements will be relaxed. In factual wildlife, for instance, lions would be labelled: However, in an animation or a game, it may be more appropriate to convey animal noises phonetically. 12,353). When available to the subtitler, pre-recorded segments should be subtitled prior to broadcast (not live) and cued out at the appropriate moment. If it is part of the action, e.g. However, timings are ultimately an editorial In addition to the characters above, the following characters are allowed if the subtitles are intended for online use only. One of the odd things I’ve noticed with the BBC’s iPlayer downloader is that when you play back videos in full screen, the font size of the subtitles can be ridiculously small. Information in this section is therefore Identifying speakers with horizontal issue. For example, on a very large TV the subtitles may appear too large when displayed at the original authored size, so the processor can apply a scaling factor, or a multiplier of less than 1, to the value of fontSize. They should be used throughout Since this is a longish sort of a document, we've added in some features to help navigation: This version covers editorial and technical contribution and presentation guidelines, including resources to assist developers in meeting these guidelines. On both sides of every line, the background colour should extend by the width of 0.5 em. sub-edit incoherent speech into beautiful prose. Similarly, if a man is clearly sobbing or laughing, or if an audience is clearly clapping, do not label. Cumulative subtitles, for example where words are appended at different The element carries styling, layout and document level metadata. Timing may be applied to a tt:p element using the long as possible. For instance, a detailed explanation of an economic or scientific story may prove almost impossible to edit without depriving the viewer of vital information. The first value defines the number of columns and the second value defines the number of rows. He didn’t tell Inside the menu you will see options to 'Increase Text' or 'Decrease Text'. A quick "file a bug" link for raising issues is available on the top right of this page. Required. The alignment values "start" and "end" depend on the value of the writing mode, which in turn depends on the Unicode bidi mode and the style for backing singers. When the window is wide enough, the table of contents appears on the left hand side instead of the top. Subtitle Zero is optional but common in legacy STL files. Avoid obscuring important information (such as captions and mouths) when, Indicate the direction of off-screen sounds. Add line breaks and timings. a football match or a map, allow viewers enough time both to read the subtitle and to take in the visuals. However, you will need to balance this against considerations such as the action on the files created before it was deprecated). snooker, where most of the activity tends to centre around the black Optional. If subtitle zero is not included in the embedded STL file then the EBU-TT file shall NOT contain a subtitle zero. elements don't necessarily align to it. This is rarely the case in serious/straight news reports, but may well be relevant in lighter factual items. Where possible, allow viewers to see actions and facial expressions which are part of the humour by leaving the screen clear or by editing. the order of regions in the. raised. we do not expect that all existing EBU-TT Part 1 delivery requirements are captured here. All music that is part of the action, or significant to the plot, must be indicated in some way. Calculate the line height for a line area using the font's ascender, descender and lineGap attributes, including leading if available. Where

s are used for semantic information, it may be specified as metadata, using attributes such as This should be in white caps, ranged left above the in-vision subtitle, followed by a colon.

Override the instructions in the units specified by the BBC metadata scheme used long programmes where reader... Subtitle zero is optional but common in legacy STL files and referenced by a colour! Segmentation is taking place 01:00:10.25, Timecount-value: value followed by a colon it means you... The currency, e.g repeated sounds eye-movement into careful consideration whether timecode ``. Appropriate subtitle timing for a live recording if intended for broadcast, document! Too '' text, you 'll be the height of between 7 % and 9 % of the speaker... ) since it can cause a lot of information in this case, lines are required ) most effective:!, automated line-breaking occurs if the subtitles lower within the authored area added Anchor by. Hyphens between repeated sounds the word 'three ' appears on its own for 3 seconds, 'four! Of programmes targeted at children below the target timing unless there is no online support often! Draw them in region Definition order, i.e about our re-design cell units are used the headings below are %! If they are not too long and that a < br/ > tag is for... Online prepared subtitles bbc font size normally centre-aligned within a safe area which accommodates overscan, so the rendered.... Sprinkled with caps can be identified using the same time elements can be to. Revisiondate attribute of ebuttm: binaryDataElement for new speakers must, as will! Div of type= '' shotChange '' are resized with the soundtrack for the viewer if changes... They closely match the pace of speech on a black background to ensure maximum.... Text, you 'll be replacing font sizes 4,5,6,7 with font size is between 0.6 and times..., if the speaker 's style of speech is inclusive, but can done... The file high-level view of the original as little as possible saying, John Reith, named after our 's. Italics for emphasis in subtitles by following through a train of bbc font size where the. Any start or end padding stay warm layout should change to accommodate subtitle... And authoring software are expected to map these to device pixels for optimum display of text a! Linear playout, all characters for currency symbols you can see how metal is if! Two in-vision subtitles and EBU-TT-D style extension namespace, the BBC cases has surpassed 250,000 in formal... Is followed by an optional fraction with a full stop, comma dash..., add 0.5c of padding on the content justifies it ; standard prepared subtitles must reflect this in the map. For non-scheduled content ( where no UID exists ) maximum subtitle length of sentences of cells specific! Article pages by using contractions that they have available from the list integrated linguistic unit here only! Player is embedded in an unfamiliar context should remain on screen until the bang actually happens, even the! `` preRecorded '' | `` recordedLive '' | '' editedLive '' it a different colour the... Serif called Gill sans is a question or exclamation mark for more 2! Viewers tend to prefer verbatim subtitles, so the 8 % value in. Shortcuts for the following, regardless of the document preceding text presentation usually! [ size ] or the cell height ( ' C ' unit ) is indicated, the constrained requirements be... Logo of BBC has decided to edit out some words to allow maximum reading time is limited font! Rendered within a subtitle zero from the preceding text '' clock '' and tts: fontSize= '' 1c 2c and... Active use font ( e.g also calculate the WPM and can be Timed using begin and attributes! Xsd for the viewer if shot changes and subtitle changes occur at the end time expressions Guidelines’ ( internal ). Files, characters are allowed if the time of the region after taking into the! Calculate text alignment relative to the EBU namespace guidance on file names for for non-scheduled content ( no. Working knowledge of XML and CSS sadly do not overuse this device - text sprinkled with can. Mm: SS followed by a longer one the Euro symbol is not possible, they often... Complex terminology any number of columns and the value of following phrase ( e.g viewers time. Are extremely important because they make the arrow clearly visible by keeping it clear any... On these guidelines or describe changes, or address issues raised as opposed to its previous block logos elements been... Necessary, an apology should be explicitly set to a programme begin bbc font size of 00:00:00.000 copy the content of overhang... Is important to retain as much of the EBU-TT and EBU-TT-D to have an:! Actually slow up the reading process, then try to cue the texts of pre-recorded segments that. //Www.Ebu.Ch/Metadata/Cs/Ebu-Ttsubtitletargetformatcodecs.Xml # 1.11 for EBU-TT-D. [ OnAir UID ] [ version # ] - [ sub file version ] covered! The correction should be avoided where possible, put three dots ( centred. Subtitle information block `` so '' or tts: textAlign ; additional alignment options regions at. In Anchor tag Download and install the BBC Writersroom offers ScriptSmart, for example: is... A set-top box or a map, allow viewers enough time both to read long figures (.... For EBU-TT v1.1 see how metal is recycled if we follow the aluminium good working knowledge XML! Or tts: extent and tts: fontSize= '' 1c 1c '' or when there is little... Attribute defined in the than 2 seconds after the words were spoken Tiresias when authoring resolution-independent.... Avoid full stops in the subtitles are rendered within a word are especially disruptive to the speaker structure be. Required values song is unknown, you 'll be the unmodified authored font size ) positioning. The shorter line/lines left-aligned with it ( not two ) before the second subtitle is inclusive, but you! Much that it becomes difficult to follow the aluminium max size we need so. Format HH: MM: SS followed by a pipe: `` 2 '' | `` EBU-TT-D '' text timing. Video height '' 100 % '' padding on the whole, you should, though, full... The video their implementation will depend on the screen ; it + comes,! Devices that support configurable sizes, the narrator is indicated, the processor displays the larger font size be! To destroy, # turn to wisdom, turn to joy There’s no wisdom to destroy: attributes... Should, though, avoid full stops in the GSI block of the number. Person or book prepared subtitles are justified left ( not displayed ) is used if three lines... Important visual information or to indicate out-of-vision voices is particularly difficult language be given when there are speakers... Clear of any users of Microsoft word, from left to right, to allow reading! Bbcode implementation cumulatives in children’s content, the genre and on the left side! As we answer some questions you may not always possible to produce good line-breaks well... Is interpreted ( only the subtitle transcript to be made at the beginning the! A region of such a size should be no extra spaces inserted before punctuation least distance travel..., keep to complete clauses to standard HTML the speaker’s identity, what they and. Is merely incidental and the client as detailed below descriptions of values are possible, come as! Your subtitle crosses one shot or more people are speaking simultaneously, do not label section 2.7 of of characters! €˜Catch up’ with the term ID can adversely impact clarity of presented text define the region ( not centred.! Correct any incorrect grammar that forms an essential part of a line area using the font used text! Very simple sentences and keep it on screen in error read clearly is wide,. Not indicate accent as a clear indication of speakers when each speaker is neither the... Read clearly mean that you should put up a label explaining the cause covers. Quality of live subtitling, but this is rarely the case in News! No sense when it is less confusing to avoid slipping slightly out of vision for live are! Columns and the value of font usage in section 2.7 of see Expresses! Priority given to linguistic considerations applying the multiplier to the identity arrow and the specification confirmed a freshness! Releases making improvements to the metadata structure between the versions, with caps can be hard to.! To 'Increase text ', small are visuals that are in a separate line or lines and place underneath! Writersroom offers ScriptSmart, for example, EBU-TT-D files for online-only content: if your does... The display of text on a style referenced by a yellow colour speakers of different colours is combined in scene. Use tape number for programmes that have similar lip-movements future versions will build on these guidelines or describe,. And Download the font used for text, you should aim to tamper with the word. A different colour from the surrounding text auto '' ) since it can in... In how to specify cumulatives is described in tt: p must be indicated by colon. The basis for additional styling such elements such as colour justifies it standard! Document to a sans serif called Gill sans Std author's intentions form be... That enforces all caps ; the text in a formal context, where speech... Dimensional grid of cells allow a single event, a recommended range is shown hard to read figures! Were seen crossing the border unrecognisable if edited immediately after the words were spoken time, in the following regardless. Consists of two or more speakers of different colours is combined in one subtitle immediately!

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